https://collective-dynamics.eu/index.php/cod/issue/feed Collective Dynamics 2022-05-11T17:28:32+02:00 Editorial Team info@collective-dynamics.eu Open Journal Systems <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Collective Dynamics is a diamond open-access multidisciplinary journal for pedestrian dynamics, vehicular traffic and other systems of self-driven particles or interacting agents (further information <a href="https://collective-dynamics.eu/index.php/cod/about">here</a>). <br /></span></p> https://collective-dynamics.eu/index.php/cod/article/view/A137 Effects of Driving Style on Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions 2022-04-15T09:32:41+02:00 Susana Carreón-Sierra scarreons@gmail.com Alejandro Salcido vasalcido@gmail.com <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">The tractive force developed by energy consumption (EC) in a car engine produces its acceleration and sustains the motion against velocity dependent resistance forces. In internal combustion engines, fuel burning entails pollutant emissions (PE) released into the atmosphere. In vehicular traffic, EC and PE depend on the driving style. This paper assumed that the transition rules in a traffic cellular automata (TCA) represent a driving style, and its effect on EC and PE in TCA is studied. Extending empirical relationships, we proposed models to estimate EC and PE in TCA from the velocity and acceleration distributions, which we obtained by computer simulations for three well-known TCA. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) and Fukui-Ishibashi (FI) models, and a variant (NS+FI) defined by combining the NS and FI rules, were considered. The FI driving style revealed EC and CO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">emission rates dependent on the stochastic delay (</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">p</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">) only for low vehicular densities. We also detected that the larger EC and CO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">emission rates were 45</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">4 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">kW </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">and 26</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">7 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">g</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">s </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">with no dependence on </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">p</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">. With NS and NS+FI driving styles, the larger energy consumption and CO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">emission rates occurred for small stochastic delays, 18</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">4 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">kW </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">and 6</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">6 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">g</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">s </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">and 61</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">1</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">kW </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">and 30</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">2 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">g</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">s </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">for </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">p </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMR10';">= </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">0.2. On average, for NS, FI, and NS+FI models (</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">p </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMR10';">= </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">2), we obtained energy consumptions of 1</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">88, 2</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">60, and 2</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">76 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">MJ</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">, fuel consumptions of 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">08, 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">12, and 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">13 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">L</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">, and CO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">emissions of 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">158, 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">460, and 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">562 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">kgCO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">. Our results agree with those (3</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">37 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">MJ</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">and 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">235 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">kgCO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">) of petrol combustion car engines at 10 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">L</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">. This work may help in designing flow and driving style scenarios to optimize vehicular traffic EC and reduce PE. </span></p> </div> </div> </div> 2022-05-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Susana Carreón-Sierra, Alejandro Salcido