Collective Dynamics https://collective-dynamics.eu/index.php/cod <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Collective Dynamics is a diamond open-access multidisciplinary journal for pedestrian dynamics, vehicular traffic and other systems of self-driven particles or interacting agents (further information <a href="https://collective-dynamics.eu/index.php/cod/about">here</a>). <br /></span></p> Forschungszentrum Jülich en-US Collective Dynamics 2366-8539 <p>Authors contributing to <strong><em>Collective Dynamics</em></strong><em> </em>agree to publish their articles under the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0</a> license.</p><p>This license allows:</p><p><strong>Share</strong> — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format</p><p><strong>Adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material</p><p>for any purpose, even commercially.</p><p>The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.</p><p>Authors retain copyright of their work. They are permitted and encouraged to post items submitted to <strong><em>Collective Dynamics</em></strong><em> </em>on personal or institutional websites and repositories, prior to and after publication (while providing the bibliographic details of that publication).</p> Effects of Driving Style on Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions https://collective-dynamics.eu/index.php/cod/article/view/A137 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">The tractive force developed by energy consumption (EC) in a car engine produces its acceleration and sustains the motion against velocity dependent resistance forces. In internal combustion engines, fuel burning entails pollutant emissions (PE) released into the atmosphere. In vehicular traffic, EC and PE depend on the driving style. This paper assumed that the transition rules in a traffic cellular automata (TCA) represent a driving style, and its effect on EC and PE in TCA is studied. Extending empirical relationships, we proposed models to estimate EC and PE in TCA from the velocity and acceleration distributions, which we obtained by computer simulations for three well-known TCA. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) and Fukui-Ishibashi (FI) models, and a variant (NS+FI) defined by combining the NS and FI rules, were considered. The FI driving style revealed EC and CO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">emission rates dependent on the stochastic delay (</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">p</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">) only for low vehicular densities. We also detected that the larger EC and CO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">emission rates were 45</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">4 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">kW </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">and 26</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">7 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">g</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">s </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">with no dependence on </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">p</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">. With NS and NS+FI driving styles, the larger energy consumption and CO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">emission rates occurred for small stochastic delays, 18</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">4 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">kW </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">and 6</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">6 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">g</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">s </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">and 61</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">1</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">kW </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">and 30</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">2 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">g</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">s </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">for </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">p </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMR10';">= </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">0.2. On average, for NS, FI, and NS+FI models (</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">p </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMR10';">= </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">2), we obtained energy consumptions of 1</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">88, 2</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">60, and 2</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">76 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">MJ</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">, fuel consumptions of 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">08, 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">12, and 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">13 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">L</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">, and CO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">emissions of 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">158, 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">460, and 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">562 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">kgCO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">. Our results agree with those (3</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">37 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">MJ</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">and 0</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">.</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">235 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">kgCO</span><span style="font-size: 9.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; vertical-align: -2.000000pt;">2</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">) of petrol combustion car engines at 10 </span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">km</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'CMMI10';">/</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L'; font-style: italic;">L</span><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'NimbusRomNo9L';">. This work may help in designing flow and driving style scenarios to optimize vehicular traffic EC and reduce PE. </span></p> </div> </div> </div> Susana Carreón-Sierra Alejandro Salcido Copyright (c) 2022 Susana Carreón-Sierra, Alejandro Salcido http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 7 1 34 10.17815/CD.2022.137