Effects of Driving Style on Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions





energy consumption, CO2 emissions, velocity and acceleration distribution, traffic cellular automata


The tractive force developed by energy consumption (EC) in a car engine produces its acceleration and sustains the motion against velocity dependent resistance forces. In internal combustion engines, fuel burning entails pollutant emissions (PE) released into the atmosphere. In vehicular traffic, EC and PE depend on the driving style. This paper assumed that the transition rules in a traffic cellular automata (TCA) represent a driving style, and its effect on EC and PE in TCA is studied. Extending empirical relationships, we proposed models to estimate EC and PE in TCA from the velocity and acceleration distributions, which we obtained by computer simulations for three well-known TCA. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) and Fukui-Ishibashi (FI) models, and a variant (NS+FI) defined by combining the NS and FI rules, were considered. The FI driving style revealed EC and CO2 emission rates dependent on the stochastic delay (p) only for low vehicular densities. We also detected that the larger EC and CO2 emission rates were 45.4 kW and 26.7 g/s with no dependence on p. With NS and NS+FI driving styles, the larger energy consumption and CO2 emission rates occurred for small stochastic delays, 18.4 kW and 6.6 g/s and 61.1kW and 30.2 g/s for p = 0.2. On average, for NS, FI, and NS+FI models (p = 0.2), we obtained energy consumptions of 1.88, 2.60, and 2.76 MJ/km, fuel consumptions of 0.08, 0.12, and 0.13 L/km, and CO2 emissions of 0.158, 0.460, and 0.562 kgCO2/km. Our results agree with those (3.37 MJ/km and 0.235 kgCO2/km) of petrol combustion car engines at 10 km/L. This work may help in designing flow and driving style scenarios to optimize vehicular traffic EC and reduce PE.

Author Biography

Susana Carreón-Sierra, Maestría en Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico

Maestría en Ciencias de la Complejidad


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How to Cite

Carreón-Sierra, S., & Salcido, A. (2022). Effects of Driving Style on Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions. Collective Dynamics, 7, 1–34. https://doi.org/10.17815/CD.2022.137