Social group behaviour of triads. Dependence on purpose and gender


  • Francesco Zanlungo ATR IRC, Kyoto, Japan
  • Zeynep Yücel Okayama University, Okayama, Japan
  • Takayuki Kanda ATR IRC, KyotoKyoto University, Kyoto, Japan



group behaviour, social relations, dyads, triads


We analysed a set of uninstructed pedestrian trajectories automatically tracked in a public area, and we asked a human coder to assess their group relationships. For those pedestrians who belong to the groups, we asked the coder to identify their apparent purpose of visit to the tracking area and apparent gender. We studied the quantitative dependence of the group dynamics on such properties in the case of triads (three people groups) and compared them to the two pedestrian group case (dyads), studied in a previous work. We found that the group velocity strongly depends on relation and gender for both triads and dyads, while the influence of these properties on spatial structure of groups is less clear in the triadic case. We discussed the relevance of these results to the modelling of pedestrian and crowd dynamics, and examined the possibility of the future works on this subject.


M. Schultz, L. Rößger, F. Hartmut and B. Schlag, Group dynamic behavior and psychometric profiles

as substantial driver for pedestrian dynamics, in Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012, U.

Weidmann, U. Kirsh and M. Schreckenberg, Vol II, pp. 1097-1111 (2014) .

M. Moussaïd M, N. Perozo, S. Garnier, D. Helbing, and G. Theraulaz, The walking behaviour of

pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics, PLoS One, 2010, 5, 4, e10047.

F. Zanlungo, T. Ikeda, and T. Kanda, Potential for the dynamics of pedestrians in a socially

interacting group, Physical Review E, 2014, 89, 1 , 021811.

F. Zanlungo, D. Brščić and T. Kanda, Spatial-size scaling of pedestrian groups under growing density

conditions, Physical Review E 91 (6), 062810 (2015)

F. Zanlungo and T. Kanda, A mesoscopic model for the effect of density on pedestrian group dynamics

Europhysics Letters, 111, 38007 (2015).

L. He, J. Pan, W. Wang and D. Manocha, Proxemic group behaviors using reciprocal multi-agent

navigation, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 292--297.

S. Bandini, L. Crociani, A. Gorrini, and G. Vizzari, An agent-based model of pedestrian dynamics

considering groups: A real world case study, IEEE 17th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation

Systems (ITSC), 2014, 572--577.

N. Bode, S. Holl, W. Mehner, and A. Seyfried, Disentangling the impact of social groups on response

times and movement dynamics in evacuations, PLoS one

G. Köster, F. Treml, M. Seitz, and W. Klein, Validation of crowd models including social groups. In

Ulrich Weidmann, Uwe Kirsch, and Michael Schreckenberg, editors, Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics

, pages 1051-1063. Springer International Publishing, 2014

X. Wei, X. Lv, W. Song, X. Li, Survey study and experimental investigation on the local behavior of

pedestrian groups, Complexity, Volume 20, Issue 6, July/August 2015, Pages 87–97.

I. Karamouzas, and M. Overmars, Simulating the local behaviour of small pedestrian groups,

Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, 183-190,


Y. Zhang, J. Pettré, X. Qin, S. Donikian and Q. Peng, A Local Behavior Model for Small Pedestrian

Groups, Computer-Aided Design and Computer Graphics (CAD/Graphics), 2011 12th International

Conference on, 275-281 (2011)

A. Gorrini, L. Crociani, C. Feliciani, P. Zhao, K. Nishinari, S. Baldini, Social groups and pedestrian

crowds: experiment on dyads in a counter flow scenario, Proceedings of the 2016 Pedestrian and

Evacuation Dynamics Conference

M. Seitz, A. Templeton, J. Drury, G. Köster, and A. Philippides, Parsimony versus reductionism:

how can crowd psychology be introduced into computer simulation?, Review of General Psychology,

(1), 95, 2017

Z. Yücel, F. Zanlungo and M. Shiomi, Modeling the impact of interaction on pedestrian group

motion Advanced Robotics, 1-11 (2018).

M. Costa, Interpersonal distances in group walking, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 34, 1, 15-26


F. Zanlungo, Z. Yücel Z, D. Brščić, T. Kanda T and N. Hagita, Intrinsic group behaviour: Dependence

of pedestrian dyad dynamics on principal social and personal features, PLoS One, 2017,

D. Bugental, Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: A domain-based approach, Psychological

bulletin, 126, 2,187, 2000




How to Cite

Zanlungo, F., Yücel, Z., & Kanda, T. (2020). Social group behaviour of triads. Dependence on purpose and gender. Collective Dynamics, 5, 118–125.



Proceedings of Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2018