Investigation of pedestrian evacuation scenarios through congestion level and crowd dang


  • Claudio Feliciani Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan
  • Katsuhiro Nishinari Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan and Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan



evacuation, congestion, intrinsic crowd risk, collective motion, experimental investigation


In this paper, we present two quantities aimed at numerically describing the level of congestion and the intrinsic risk of pedestrian crowds. The congestion level allows to assess the smoothness of pedestrian streams and recognize regions where self-organization is difficult or not possible. This measure differs from previous attempts to quantify congestion in pedestrian crowds by employing velocities as vector entities (thus not only focusing on the absolute value). The crowd danger contains elements related to congestion, but also includes the effect of density, consequently allowing to asses the risks intrinsically created by the dynamics of crowds. Details on the computational methods related to both quantities are described in the paper and their properties are discussed. As a practical application, both measures are used to investigate supervised experiments where evacuation (or similar conditions) are considered. Results for small room sizes and limited number of pedestrians show that the crowd danger distribution over the space in front of the exit door has similar patterns to typical quantities used in the frame of pedestrian dynamics (density and flow) and symmetrical shapes are obtained. However, when larger scenarios are considered, then congestion map and crowd danger become unrelated from density and/or flow, showing that both quantities express different aspects of pedestrian motion.


C. von Krüchten, F. Müller, A. Svachiy, O. Wohak, A. Schadschneider, “Empirical study of the

influence of social groups in evacuation scenarios”, in Traffic and Granular Flow '15, L. V. Knoop,

Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 65-72.

D. Yanagisawa, A. Kimura, A. Tomoeda, R. Nishi, Y. Suma, K. Ohtsuka, K. Nishinari,

“Introduction of frictional and turning function for pedestrian outflow with an obstacle”, Phys. Rev.

E, vol. 80, no. 3, 2009.

C. Feliciani, K. Nishinari, “Measurement of congestion and intrinsic risk in pedestrian crowds”,

Transp. Res. Part. C Emerg. Technol., vol. 91, pp. 124-155, 2018.

P. Lin, J. Ma, T. Liu, T. Ran, Y. Si, T. Li, “An experimental study of the “faster-is-slower” effect

using mice under panic”, Physica A, vol. 452, pp. 157-166, 2016.

A. Garcimartín, J. M. Pastor, L. M. Ferrer, J. J. Ramos, C. Martín-Gómez, I. Zuriguel, “Flow and

clogging of a sheep herd passing through a bottleneck”, Phys. Rev. E, vol. 91, no. 2, 2015.

I. Zuriguel, D. Ricardo Parisi, R. C. Hidalgo, C. Lozano, A. Janda, P. A. Gago, J. P. Peralta, L. M.

Ferrer, L. A. Pugnaloni, E. Clément, D. Maza, I. Pagonabarraga, A. Garcimartín, “Clogging

transition of many-particle systems flowing through bottlenecks”, Sci. Rep., vol. 4, 2014.

L. Lu, C. Y. Chan, J. Wang, W. Wang, “A study of pedestrian group behaviors in crowd evacuation

based on an extended floor field cellular automaton model”, Transp. Res. Part. C Emerg. Technol.,

vol. 81, pp. 317-329, 2017.

D. Helbing, A. Johansson, H. Z. Al-Abideen, “The Dynamics of Crowd Disasters: An Empirical

Study”, Phys. Rev. E, vol. 75, no. 4, 2007.

K. Yamori, “Going with the flow: Micro--macro dynamics in the macrobehavioral patterns of

pedestrian crowds”, Psychol. Rev., vol. 105, no. 3, 1998.

S. Nowak, A. Schadschneider, “Quantitative analysis of pedestrian counterflow in a cellular

automaton model”, Phys. Rev. E, vol. 85, no. 6, 2012.

D. C. Duives, W. Daamen, S. P. Hoogendoorn, “Quantification of the level of crowdedness for

pedestrian movements”, Physica A, vol. 427, pp. 162-180, 2015.

B. Steffen, A. Seyfried, “Methods for measuring pedestrian density, flow, speed and direction with

minimal scatter”, Physica A, vol. 389, no. 9, pp. 1902-1910, 2010.

J. Zhang, W. Klingsch, A. Schadschneider, A. Seyfried, “Ordering in bidirectional pedestrian flows

and its influence on the fundamental diagram”, J. Stat. Mech., vol. 2012, no. 2, 2012.

Forschungszentrum Jülich, “Data archive of experimental data from studies about pedestrian

dynamics”, (accessed May, 2018).

H. Yamamoto, D. Yanagisawa, C. Feliciani, K. Nishinari, “Modeling body-rotation behavior of

pedestrians for collision avoidance in a narrow corridor”, Transp. Res. Part. B Meth., 2018


C. Feliciani, K. Nishinari, “Estimation of pedestrian crowds’ properties using commercial tablets and

smartphones”, Transportmetrica B, 2017 (submitted).

A. Sieben, J. Schumann, A. Seyfried, “Collective phenomena in crowds–where pedestrian dynamics

need social psychology”, PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 6, 2017.

A. Seyfried, O. Passon, B. Steffen, M. Boltes, T. Rupprecht, W. Klingsch, “New insights into

pedestrian flow through bottlenecks”, Transp. Sci., vol. 43, no. 3, 2009.




How to Cite

Feliciani, C., & Nishinari, K. (2020). Investigation of pedestrian evacuation scenarios through congestion level and crowd dang. Collective Dynamics, 5, 150–157.



Proceedings of Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2018