Effect of architectural adjustments on pedestrian flow at bottleneck

Jianyu Wang, Jian Ma, Peng Lin


In the last decades, a series of terrible accidents happened within pedestrian crowds, which makes crowd dynamic a significant issue to be investigated. Literature reviews show that pedestrian flow presents different features within different architectural layout. In this paper, pedestrian movement properties at bottleneck are studied by carrying out series of experiments under laboratory condition. The influence of door sizes and exit locations on pedestrian crowd flow is investigated. It was found that larger door width resulted in shorter evacuation time and faster flow rate. By comparing the fundamental diagram among crowd evacuation, the average velocity increases as the width increases under the same density condition. Interestingly, the influence of the boundary layer, as well as the effective width on pedestrian crowd dynamic, was clearly observed. Our results suggest that the combination of exit width and location resulted in a synergistic effect, but the exit widths gradually became the most important factor influencing the flow rate.


pedestrian crowd dynamics; door width; exit position; specific capacity; time interval

Full Text:



Kretz T, Grünebohm A and Schreckenberg M 2006 Experimental study of pedestrian flow through a

bottleneck Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment P10014-P

Daamen W and Hoogendoorn S P 2010 Emergency Door Capacity: Influence of Door Width,

Population Composition and Stress Level Fire Technology 48 55-71

Garcimartín A, Pastor J M, Martín-Gómez C, Parisi D and Zuriguel I 2017 Pedestrian collective

motion in competitive room evacuation Scientific Reports 7

Pastor J M, Garcimartin A, Gago P A, Peralta J P, Martin-Gomez C, Ferrer L M, Maza D, Parisi D

R, Pugnaloni L A and Zuriguel I 2015 Experimental proof of faster-is-slower in systems of frictional

particles flowing through constrictions Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 92 062817

Garcimartín A, Parisi D, Pastor J, Martíngómez C and Zuriguel I 2016 Flow of pedestrians through

narrow doors with different competitiveness Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment 13

Shiwakoti N, Sarvi M and Burd M 2014 Using non-human biological entities to understand

pedestrian crowd behaviour under emergency conditions Safety Science 66 1-8

Burd M, Shiwakoti N, Sarvi M and Rose G 2010 Nest architecture and traffic flow: large potential

effects from small structural features Ecological Entomology 464–8

Shiwakoti N and Sarvi M 2013 Understanding pedestrian crowd panic: a review on model

organisms approach Journal of Transport Geography 26 12-7

Shiwakoti N, Sarvi M, Rose G and Burd M 2011 Animal dynamics based approach for modeling

pedestrian crowd egress under panic conditions Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 45


Shiwakoti N, Tay R, Stasinopoulos P and Woolley P J 2017 Likely behaviours of passengers under

emergency evacuation in train station Safety Science 91 40-8

Lin P, Ma J, Liu T, Ran T, Si Y and Li T 2016 An experimental study of the “faster-is-slower”

effect using mice under panic Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 452 157-66

Boltes M, Seyfried A, Steffen B and Schadschneider A 2010 Automatic extraction of pedestrian

trajectories from video recordings Springer 43-54

Zhang J, Klingsch W, Schadschneider A and Seyfried A 2012 Ordering in bidirectional pedestrian

flows and its influence on the fundamental diagram Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and

Experiment 2012 P02002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17815/CD.2020.47

Copyright (c) 2020 Jianyu Wang, Jian Ma, Peng Lin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.