Analysis of Built Environment Influence on Pedestrian route choice behavior in Dutch Design Week using GPS Data

Yanan Liu, Dujuan Yang, Bauke de Vries, Harry J.P. Timmermans


Visitors not only have specific destinations targeting the Dutch Design Week (DDW) exhibitions distributed all over the city, but also visit the city in between exhibition activities. The mixed environment makes modeling behavior of DDW visitors more complex than shoppers and tourisms only. This research pays special attention to the influence of built environment on pedestrian route choice. The built environment includes building and transportation infrastructure. GPS tracking data and social demographic information were collected during the event. Multinomial logit model and path size logit model are used to analysis route choice behavior. The results show that some built environment factors have significant influence on route choice. Shops are more attractive for aged visitors. Females prefer shorter routes more. In big event, the alternative routes with more sharing links could increase the possibility to choose.


pedestrian route choice; built environment; gps data

Full Text:



Verlander, N.Q. a B.G. Heydecker, “Pedestrian route choice: An empirical study,” In: Proceedings of Seminar F of the PTRC European Transport Forum, pp. 39–49, September 1997.

Crow, “ASVV: Recommendations for Traffic Provisions in Built-Up Areas”, Report 15, January 1998.

Carstens, R.L. & S.L. Ring, “Pedestrian capacities of shelter entrances, Traffic Engineering”, vol. 41(3), pp. 38–43, 1970.

Daamen, W, & Hoogendoorn, SP, “Controlled experiments to derive walking behavior”, European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 3 (1), pp. 39-59, 2003.

Vale, D.S., Saraiva, M. & Pereira M, “Active accessibility: A review of operational measures of walking and cycling accessibility”, The Journal of Transport and Land Use, 9(1), pp. 1-27, 2016.

Townsend, C. & Zacharias, J, “Built environment and pedestrian behavior at rail rapid transit stations in Bangkok”, Transportation, 37, pp. 317-330, 2010.

Bagley, M.N. & Mokhtarian, P.L, “The impact of residential neighborhood type on travel behavior: A structural equations modeling approach”, The Annals of Regional Science, 36, pp. 279-297, 2002.

Saelens B.E., & Handy, S.L, “Built environment correlates of walking: a review”, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 40(7), pp. 550–566, 2008.

Robert Cervero, Kara Kockelman, “Travel demand and the 3Ds: density, diversity and design”, Pergamon Transpn Res, 2(3), pp. 199-219, 1997.

Owen, N., Humpel, N, “Understanding Environmental Influences on Walking: Review and Research Agenda”, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol.27(1), pp. 67-76, 2004.

Seneviratne, P.N. & J.F. Morrall, “Analysis of factors affecting the choice of route of pedestrians. Transportation Planning and Technology”, vol. 10 (2), pp. 147–159, 1985.

Ciolek, M.T., “Spatial behaviour in pedestrian areas”, Ekistics, vol. 45 (268), pp. 120–121, 1978.

Bovy, P.H.L. & E. Stern, “Route Choice: Wayfinding in Transport Networks”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1990.

Ben-Akiva M., Bierlaire M., “Discrete Choice Methods and their Applications to Short-Term Travel Decisions”, In: Hall R.W. (eds) Handbook of Transportation Science, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, Springer, Boston, MA. 23, 1999.

Antonini, G., Bierlaire, M., and Weber, M., “Discrete choice models of pedestrian walking behavior,” Transportation Research Part B, vol. 40(8), pp. 667-687, September 2006.

Bellman, R., “On a routing problem”, Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, vol.16 (1), 87-90, 1958.

Prato, C.G., Bekhor, S., “Applying branch & bound technique to route choice set generation”, Transportation Research Record, pp.19-28, 1985.

Ramming, S., “Network knowledge and route choice”. Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA, 2002.

Frejinger, E., Bierlaire M. , Ben-Akiva, M., “Sampling of alternative for route choice modeling”, Transportation Research Part B, vol 43, pp.984-994, 2009.

Ben-Akiva, M.E., Bierlaire, M., “Discrete choice methods and their applications to short term travel decisions”, In: Hall, R.W. (Ed.), Handbook of Transportation Science. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp.5-34, 1999.

Carlo G. P., “Route choice modeling: past, present and future research directions,” Journal of Choice Modelling, vol. 2(1), pp. 65-100, 2009.

Frejinger, E., Bierlaire, M., “Capturing correlation with subnetworks in route choice models”, Transportation Research Part B, vol(41), pp. 363-378, 2007.


Copyright (c) 2020 Yanan Liu, Dujuan Yang, Bauke de Vries, Harry J.P. Timmermans

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.