Bridging the gap Why we need to enhance current simulation models

Kneidl Angelika


Many models that simulate evacuations are state of the art and provide realistic insight to their users. However, simulating everyday situations, such as visitor flow through a museum or passenger flow through an airport, presents marked challenges; existing models reach their limit here. This contribution will introduce and highlight the gap between existing egress models and the difficulties found simulating, for instance, passenger flow or capacity analysis.


pedestrian simulation model enhancements; agent-based behaviour; persona approach; simulation of everyday situation

Full Text:



Funge, John and Tu, Xiaoyuan and Terzopoulos, Demetri, “Cognitive Modeling: Knowledge, Reasoning and Planning for Intelligent Characters”, Proceedings of the 26th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p-29-38, 1999

Andresen, E., M. Charaibi, A. Seyfried, “A Representation of Partial Spatial Knowledge: A Cognitive Map Approach for Evacuation Simulations”, Transportmetrica A: Transport Sciene, pp.1-18, 2018

Moussaïd, M. & Helbing, D.,How simple rules determine pedestrian behavior and crowd disasters,Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011, 108, 6884-6888

Helbing, D. & Molnár, P.,Social Force Model for Pedestrian Dynamics Physical Review E, 1995, 51, 4282-4286

Blue, V. & Adler, J.,Cellular Automata Microsimulation of Bidirectional Pedestrian Flows, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1999, 1678, 135-141

Reynolds, C.,Steering Behaviors for Autonomous Characters, Game Developers Conference, 1999

Köster, G.; Treml, F.; Seitz, M. & Klein, W.,Validation of crowd models including social groups,Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics, 2012

Moussaïd, M.; Perozo, N.; Garnier, S.; Helbing, D. & Theraulaz, G.,The Walking Behaviour of Pedestrian Social Groups and Its Impact on Crowd Dynamics, PLoS ONE, 2010, 5, e10047

Köster, G. & Zönnchen, B.,Queuing at Bottlenecks Using a Dynamic Floor Field for Navigation, Transportation Research Procedia , 2014, 2, 344 – 352

C. Schaefer, R. Zinke, L. Kuenzer, G. Hofinger, and R. Koch, “Applying Persona method for describing users of escape routes?” in The Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2014 (PED2014), 2014, pp. 636–641.

D. C. Duives, W. Daamen, and S. P. Hoogendoorn, “State-of-the-art crowd motion simulation models,” Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, vol. 37, pp. 193–209, 2013

G. Hofinger, R. Zinke, and L. Künzer, “Human Factors in Evacuation Simulation, Planning, and Guidance,” Transportation Research Procedia, vol. 2, pp. 603–611, 2014

B. Schmidt: Modelling of Human Behaviour: “The PECS Reference Model.” AAAI Technical Report FS-01-02, 2001

N. Pelechano, K. O’Brien K. B. Silverman, N. Badler, “Crowd Simulation Incorporating Agent Psychological Models, Roles and Communication“, First International Workshop on Crowd Simulation, 2005

P. Kielar, O. Handel, D. Biedermann, A. Borrmann: “Concurrent hierarchical finite state machines for modeling pedestrian behavioral tendencies.” Transportation Research Procedia 2 (2014) 576 – 584, 2014


Copyright (c) 2020 Kneidl Angelika

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.