Social Force Modeling of the Pedestrian Motion in the Mataf


  • Rainald Löhner Center for Computational Fluid Dynamics, George Mason University, Fairfax, USA
  • Eberhard Haug SL Rasch, Oberaichen, Germany
  • Britto M. SL Rasch, Oberaichen, Germany



pedestrian modeling, social force model, crowd dynamics, kaaba, hajj


Two models for the motion in the Mataf of the Holy Mosque of Makkah that are applicable to any so-called social force or agent-based model are presented. The first model assigns a desired distance to the Kaaba to each pilgrim. The second model assumes that pilgrims desire to get as close as possible to the Kaaba until a tolerable density is reached. Both models are realistic: image data shows behaviours of both types. The models are very simple to incorporate into any computational crowd dynamics code, and yield results that correlate surprisingly well with observed data.


R. Löhner, “On the Modeling of Pedestrian Motion,” Appl. Math. Modelling 34, 2, 366-382 (2010).

R. Löhner, E. Haug, C. Zinggerling and E. Onate, “Real-Time Micro-Modeling of City Evacuations,” Comp. Part. Mech. 5, 71-86 (2018).

R. Löhner, B. Muhamad, P. Dambalmath and E. Haug, “Fundamental Diagrams for Specific Very High Density Crowds,” Collective Dynamics 2 (2018).




How to Cite

Löhner, R., Haug, E., & M., B. (2020). Social Force Modeling of the Pedestrian Motion in the Mataf. Collective Dynamics, 5, 528–530.



Proceedings of Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2018