A Case for Identity Hierarchies in Simulating Social Groups
Keywords:group modelling, social identity, simulation, pedestrian modelling, hierarchical structure
AbstractBy considering previous empirical studies in group dynamics, modelling designs for pedestrian simulators and psychological and sociological theories of crowd behaviour, we briefly present a hierarchical, identity-based approach to simulating pedestrian social groups.
Cheng L, Yarlagadda R, Fookes C, Yarlagadda P (2014) A review of pedestrian group dynamics
and methodologies in modelling pedestrian group behaviours. World Journal of Mechanical
Engineering Vol. 1(1), pp. 002-013.
Costa M (2009) Interpersonal Distances in Group Walking. J Nonverbal Behav (2010) 34:15-26
Feng Y, Dewei L (2016) An Emprical Study and Conceptual Model on Heterogeneity of Pedestrian
Social Groups for Friend-group and Family-group. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2016,
Collective Dynamics pp. 402-407
Zanlungo F, Yücel Z, Brščić D, Kanda T, Hagita N (2017) Intrinsic group behaviour: Dependence of
pedestrian dyad dynamics on principal social and personal features. PLoS ONE 12(11): e0187253
Gigerenzer G (2008) Why Heuristics Work. Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol. 3, No. 1.
Seitz M, Bode N, Köster G (2016) How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial
movement. Journal of Royal Society Interface, August 2016, vol. 13, Issue 21,
Shah A, Oppenheimer D (2008) Heuristics Made Easy: An Effort-Reduction Framework. American
Psychological Association, Psychological Bulletin, 2008, Vol. 134, No. 2, 207–222
Garbarino E, Edell J (1997) Cognitive effort, affect, and choice. J. Consum. Res. 24, 147–158
Moussaïd M, Perozo N, Garnier S, Helbing D and Theraulaz G (2010) The walking behaviour of
pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics. PLoS ONE 5(4): e10047
Helbing D, Buzna L, Johansson A, Werner T (2005) Self-Organized Pedestrian Crowd Dynamics:
Experiments, Simulations, and Design Solutions. Transportation Science 39: 1-24
Moussaïd M, Helbing D, Theraulaz G (2011) How simple rules determine pedestrian behavior and
crowd disasters. PNAS April 26, 2011. 108 (17) 6884-6888
Bar M (2007) The proactive brain: Using analogies and associations to generate predictions. Trends
in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 9, September 2007, pp. 372
Reicher S, Spears R, Postmes T (1995) A Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Phenomena.
European Review of Social Psychology 6(1):161-198
Reicher, S. D. (1984a). The St. Pauls riot: an explication of de limits of crowd action in terms of a
social identity model. Europeam Journal of Social Psychology, 14, 1–21
Turner J, Ontaro R (1999) The psychology of the social self: Social identity, personality and the selfconcept: A self-categorization perspective, Chapter 1. Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis Group
Sivers I, Templeton A, Köster G, Drury J, Philippides A (2014) Humans do not always act selfishly:
social identity and helping in emergency evacuation simulation. Proceedings of Conference on
Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2014, Transportation Research Procedia 2 585-593
Drury J, Cocking C (2007) The mass psychology of disasters and emergency evacuations: A research
report and implications for practice
Moral-Toranzo F, Canto-Ortiz J, Go´mez-Jacinto L (2005) Anonymity effects in computer-mediated
communication in the case of minority influence. Computers in Human Behavior 23 (2007) 1660–
Schmidt B (2001) Modelling of Human Behaviour: The PECS Reference Model. AAAI Technical
Kielar P, Handel O, Biedermann D, Borrmann A (2014) Concurrent hierarchical finite state
machines for modeling pedestrian behavioral tendencies. Transportation Research Procedia 2 ( 2014 )
Golledge R, Jacobson R, Kitchin R, Blades M (2000) Cognitive Maps, Spatial Abilities, and Human
Wayfinding. Geographical Review of Japan Vol. 73 (Ser. B), No. 2, 93-104, 2000
Etienne A, Jeffery K (2004) Path Integration in Mammals. HIPPOCAMPUS 14:180 –192
Krüchten C, Schadschneider A (2007) Empirical study on social groups in pedestrian evacuation
dynamics. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, vol. 475, pp. 129-141
Jaklin N, Kremyzas A, Geraerts R (2015) Adding Sociality to Virtual pedestrian Groups.
Proceedings of Conference: 21th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology
Frohnwieser A, Hopf R, Oberzaucher E (2013) Human Walking Behaviour – The Effect of
Pedestrian Flow and Personal Space Invasions on Walking Speed and Direction. Human Ethology
Bulletin 28 (2013):3 20-28, Brief Reports
Fridman N, Kaminka G (2007) Towards a Cognitive Model of Crowd Behavior Based on Social
Comparison Theory. Proceedings of the 22nd national conference on Artificial intelligence – vol. 1 pp.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 A. Platt, A. Kneidl
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors contributing to Collective Dynamics agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license.
This license allows:
Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material
for any purpose, even commercially.
The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
Authors retain copyright of their work. They are permitted and encouraged to post items submitted to Collective Dynamics on personal or institutional websites and repositories, prior to and after publication (while providing the bibliographic details of that publication).